Main cause of periodontal (gum) diseases is formation of colorless sticky deposits on teeth. If not cleaned, they may produce toxins which cause redness, swelling and bleeding of gums. As gum disease progress supporting tissue that hold teeth start deteriorating. This situation result in gap formation between teeth and gums and called periodontal pockets. To treat this condition professional treatment in the form of flap surgery is performed.
It consists of surgical opening of gums for better visualization and access to the infected areas. Specialized cleaning instruments help to clean and smoothen the root surfaces. Occasionally bone surface need to be trimmed for better adaptation of soft tissues. Diseased gum tissue is trimmed with scissors to achieve a healthy tissue surface which allow for proper healing. After this gums are placed back to their position with the help of sutures.